The history of the United Kingdom, also known as Great Britain, dates back to the prehistoric era with the arrival of early humans and the formation of the islands. In the succeeding centuries, the region saw numerous invasions and migrations by various peoples including the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, and Normans.
The Norman Conquest of 1066 brought about significant changes to the political and social structure of England, leading to the establishment of feudalism and the development of a centralized monarchy. Over the course of the next centuries, England gradually expanded its territories through conquest and colonization, and emerged as a dominant European power.
In 1707, Scotland and England united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, ushering in a period of relative stability and prosperity. The country played a major role in the Industrial Revolution and the expansion of the British Empire, becoming the global superpower of the 19th century.
The 20th century saw significant changes to the country’s political and social landscape, including two World Wars, the rise and fall of the British Empire, and the establishment of the National Health Service and welfare state. In 1973, the United Kingdom joined the European Union, which would have a significant impact on the country’s political and economic development.
Currently, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government, comprising of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland. It continues to play a leading role on the global stage, and faces numerous challenges including Brexit, terrorism, and social inequality.